sábado, febrero 18, 2006


A continuación os ponemos a disposición el FLASH Nº 37 del BIEN.

Dado que a la redacción de este Blog no se le da muy bien la traducción del Ingles, hemos obtado por ponerlo en la lengua en la que nos fue transmitido, por lo que disculpando la lengua, os exponemos el flash con el fin de que los lectores de este Blog, sean conscientes de lo que se esta trabajando a nivel mundial en la Rentabasica. Así como las conferencias y novedades oficiales acerca del tema.

BIEN - BASIC INCOME EARTH NETWORKhttp://www.basicincome.org/The Basic Income Earth Network was founded in 1986 as the Basic Income European Network. It expanded its scope from Europe to the Earth in 2004. It serves as a link between individuals and groups committed to or interested in basic income, and fosters informed discussion on this topic throughout the world.

NewsFlash 37, January 2006BIEN's NewsFlash is mailed electronically every two months to over 1000 subscribers throughout the world.Requests for free subscription are to be sent to bien@basicincome.orgItems for inclusion or review in future NewsFlashes are to be sent to Yannick Vanderborght, newsletter editor, UCL, Chaire Hoover, 3 Place Montesquieu, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, vanderborght@etes.ucl.ac.beThe present NewsFlash has been prepared with the help of David Casassas, Jurgen De Wispelaere, Sabrina Delpico, Sascha Liebermann, Paul Nollen, Maria Ozanira Silva e Silva, Eric Patry, Guy Standing, Eduardo Matarazzo Suplicy, Ingrid Van Niekerk, Philippe Van Parijs, and Karl Widerquist.

1. Editorial
2. BIEN 11th CONGRESS: 2-4 November 2006, Cape Town, South Africa
3. "Basic Income Studies" signs an agreement with The Berkeley Electronic Press
4. Events
*ZURICH (CH), 6 October 2005, BIEN-Switzerland's open discussion on basic income
*SAO PAULO (BR), 23-25 November 2005, National Seminar on Income Transfer
*ROME (IT), 2 December 2005, Conference on new social guarantees
*BOSTON (US), 6-8 January 2006, Allied Social Science Association Meeting
*DORTMUND (DE), 10 February 2006: Panel discussion on basic income
*KARLSRUHE (DE), 23-24 February 2006: Symposium on basic income
*PHILADELPHIA (US), 24-26 February 2006: The Fifth Congress of USBIG
*HEIDELBERG (DE), 18 March 2006: Panel Discussion on "Unconditional Basic Income"
5. Glimpses of national debates
7. New Links
*Alaska's Digital Archives
*GBI Foundation
*FIAN International8. About the Basic Income Earth Network_____


The fundamental justification for Basic Income rests in its support for human dignity. It is a right that all societies must respect. Nevertheless, many economists and social policy analysts are researching the developmental impact of universal income grants. In part, researchers are responding to the spurious arguments of Basic Income’s opponents, who hide behind the straw figures of dependency and unsustainability. More importantly, analysts are finding that universal income programmes effectively promote people’s accumulation of human capital­health, education, skills, nutrition. Basic Income strengthens labour markets, providing a springboard to more sustaining livelihoods. Basic Income is developmental. The main theme of the 2006 Basic Income Earth Network Congress will explore how strengthening universalism in social protection will foster a more developmental State, with greater economic freedom and opportunity for all People.Following the success of the 2004 Congress in Barcelona and the transformation of the Basic Income European Network into the Basic Income Earth Network (BIEN), BIEN and the Basic Income Grant Coalition (BIG Coalition) of South Africa invite you to spend a few days on the tip of Africa to participate in the first international “Earth” BIEN Congress. It will form part of the Conference that will take place on 2-4 November 2006 in Cape Town, South Africa.
Further details about the official Call for papers in this NewsFlash.BIEN's Executive Committee


BIEN 11th CONGRESS: 2-4 November 2006, Cape Town, South Africa. Title of Conference and Congress: UNIVERSALISM STRENGTHENS DEVELOPMENTBIEN's 11th International Congress will be held in Cape Town, South Africa, on 2-4 November 2006. The organizing committee invite you to submit a proposal for your presentation at the Conference. Our theme for this Conference has a twin focus: to strengthen demands for universal provision of social protection and to illuminate the impact of universalism on social and economic development. Proposals on all aspects of Basic Income are welcome, and the committee will endeavour to accommodate as many of the proposals outside the main theme or sub-themes as possible. For this Conference BIEN is adding another dimension to the proceedings. While the main focus of the Conference will be on the more academic and formal papers presented in plenary and panel discussion sessions, we invite participants who wish to participate in a less formal manner to put forward proposals for the workshops. These workshops will focus on issues of mobilisation and implementation of Basic Income. The workshops will be practical and some even hands-on. In this way we hope to embrace the new challenges countries are experiencing in accepting and promoting the ideals and ideas of Basic Income in the world. Full details can be found in the official Call for Papers that has been posted on BIEN's websiteProposal Submission deadline: 15 March 2006 Please send proposals to:
Registration is R600 (EURO 85, USDollar 100). In coming weeks the registration form will be made downloadable at http://www.big.org.za/ as well as at www.basicincome.org

Sub-themes (for further details about the sub-themes, please download the official Call for Papers)
1. Formal presentations:
*1.1 Strengthening Universalism strengthens Development
*1.2 Income Security and HIV/AIDS
*1.3 Basic Income and Race, Gender and Class Inequalities
*1.4 The Dynamics of Universal Basic Income
*1.5 The Labour Movement and Universal Social Protection
*1.6 Care Work and Basic Income
*1.7 Basic Income, Human Rights and Justice for all
*1.8 Prospects and Challenges faced by in-country programmes
*1.9 Issues in Financing and Implementation of Basic Income

2. Workshop:

*Mobilising Support for Basic Income Information about the BIG Coalition / BIEN Congress 2006 Working Committee:Organising Committee Chairs: Sibonile Khoza (Chair of BIG) and Ingrid van Niekerk (BIEN) Guy Standing (BIEN)Isobel Frye (National Labour and Economic Development Institute - NALEDI)Nceba Mafongosi (Black Sash)Pumi Yeni (BIG organiser)Sharon Ekambaram (Chris Hani Institute)Sidney Kgara (Congress of South African Trade Unions - COSATU)Albert Dlwengu (Council of Churches - SACC)Annie Leatt (Children’s Institute- CI)

Basic Income Studies (BIS), the new international academic journal for basic income research, is pleased to announce that it has signed a publishing agreement with The Berkeley Electronic Press (http://www.bepress.com/). Bepress is a well-known electronic publisher of a wide range of academic journals particularly in the fields of economics and law and a representative of the "new standard in scholarly publishing". Founded by academics in 1999, Bepress produces innovative and effective means of content production and dissemination for journals and publishers.Publication with Bepress will have numerous advantages for BIS: invaluable assistance in the editorial and production process through the use of Bepress' licenced editorial management software; administration of individual and institutional subscriptions; access to Bepress' worldwide advertizing network to assist us in promoting basic income research. In addition the close association with a recognized publisher will give BIS recognition as a serious academic publication.Over the past months the BIS editorial team and Bepress have put a lot of work in putting together a website with electronic submission facilities. Our new website will be officially launched at the USBIG conference in Philadelphia on 25 February. We invite all of you to visit our site afterwards.The BIS inaugural issue with contributions by G.A Cohen, Erik Olin Wright, Robert van der Veen and Philippe Van Parijs and many others is due to be published in June 2006. In the meantime BIS is constantly on the look-out for research articles and book reviews. Please get in touch with the editors ateditor@basicincomestudies.org or the book review editor atbook@basicincomestudies.org for information about making a contribution.


*ZURICH (CH), 6 October 2005, BIEN-Switzerland organizes open discussion on basic incomeBIEN-Switzerland has organised a panel discussion on unconditional basic income on the 6th of october in Zurich, at the "Bernhard-Theater". Main discussants were Joachim Mitschke (Professor for economic in Frankfurt), Michael Opielka (Professor for Social Policy in Jena), and Peter Ulrich (Professor for Business Ethics in St. Gallen). Rather than a scientific exchange it was a controversial "political discussion" in front of about hundred spectators, and no specific papers were presented. The newspaper "Neue Bürcher Zeitung" reported on the conference in its October 8th issue.

*SAO PAULO (BR), 23-25 November 2005, National Seminar on Income TransferThis event was organized and coordinated through an academic cooperation among the following institutions: "Public Policies Post Graduation Program" from the Universidade Federal of Maranhão; "Post Graduation in Social Services" from the Pontificia Universidade Católica in São Paulo and the "Studies Nucleus on Public Policies" from the Universidade Estadual de Campinas. The National Seminar on Income Transfer was based on the experiences of the programs in progress in the country and the researches that are being developed in the institutions which promoted the event, taking into account the 10 years of the implementation of these programs in Brazil, the implementation of these experiences in all Brazilian municipalities, the importance of these programs in remodeling the content and the dynamics of the Brazilian System of Social Protection today, and the proposal of the unification of the programs at the National Level.The Seminar was directed by the following targets:
a) The follow-up and the assessment of the developing process in the Income Transfer Programs that are being implemented in Brazil;
b) To explain the experiences and the scientific works on these programs;
c) To foster the national exchange between organizations and entities responsible for the experiences;
d) To produce general or specific recommendations aiming at certain programs;
e) To present the Citizen's Basic Income Brazilian Network.The programme was constituted by the presentations of experiences and of research results in the following conferences:"Income Transfer Programs in the Context of the Social Protection Brazilian System" ("Os Programas de Transferência de Renda no Contexto do Sistema Brasileiro de Proteção Social") (Profa. Dra. Maria Ozanira da Silva e Silva, Universidade Federal do Maranhão);"The Income Transfer State Programs and its linking to the Municipal and Federal Programs" ("Os Programas Estaduais de Transferência de Renda e sua articulação com os Programas Federais e Municipais") (Profa. Dra. Maria Helena Guimarães de Castro, Social Development State Secretary in São Paulo);"The Income Transfer Municipal Programs and its linking to the Bolsa Familia Program")(Os Programas Municipais de Transferência de Renda e sua articulação com o Bolsa Família") (Dr. Antônio Pereira Pesaro, Social Assistance Municipal Secretary in São Paulo);"The Federal Government Income Transfer Programs: nowadays and unification" (Os Programas de Transferência de Renda do Governo Federal: atualidade e unificação")(representative of the Social Development and Combat against Hunger Ministry);Presentation of the Citizen's Basic Income Brazilian Network (Rede Brasileira de Renda Básica de Cidadania) (Senator Eduardo Matarazzo Suplicy)"

*ROME (IT), 2 December 2005, Conference on new social guaranteesItalian interest in a basic income is growing. On December 2, 2005, a public conference was organised in Rome to discuss 'the right to a basic income'. More than 200 persons, among whom numerous members from trade unions, social movements, journalists, local administrators were present at this meeting promoted by the Councillor’s Office on Labour of Regione Lazio.The invited plenary speakers were Alessandra Tibaldi, Stefano Sacchi, Guy Standing, Rafael Pinilla Palleja, Jose Iglesias Fernandez, Luigi Nieri, Alessandra Mandarelli and Giuseppe Mariani. The interventions of the participants pointed out the need and the possibility to start experiments of basic income as part of a new redistributive policy.The meeting pointed out the need to launch a wider plan of reconstruction of the Italian welfare state system which takes the matter of basic income into account. A basic income in cash or in kind must be the core of future social policies.Recent reforms of the Italian Constitution now give more power to the regions in the field of welfare. The political actors who were present such as the Member of the Councillor’s Office on Labour and the Member of the Counillor’s Office on Budget declared that they are in favour of taking a course which leads to the introduction of a regional bill about basic income.With the General Election due to take place in 2006, there is much debate about what platforms should be presented on welfare by the opposition parties. As is well known, the Italian welfare state is particularly undeveloped by comparison with all the European countries to the north of Italy. But there is considerable disquiet about the growth of precarious labour contracts and the pressure on the pension system, as well as the shrinking Italian family and the ageing of the population. Economic insecurities are pervasive, and in that context movements towards a basic income are conceivable.For further information: infoxoa@infoxoa.org

*BOSTON (US), 6-8 January 2006, Allied Social Science Association MeetingOn January 6, 2006, a panel on "The Basic Income Guarantee and Living Standards" was organized within the framework of the 2006 Allied Social Science Association Meeting. For further information: http://www.socialeconomics.org/ASSAProg.htm

*DORTMUND (DE), 10 February 2006: Panel discussion on basic incomeA panel discussion about an unconditional basic income will take place at the University of Dortmund, February 10, 2006. Participants: Wolfram Richter (Economist, Univ. of Dortmund), Lutz Wingert (Philosopher, Univ. of Dortmund), Sascha Liebermann (Sociologist, Univ. of Dortmund), Götz Werner (Owner, DM Drugstores, and Univ. of Karlsruhe), Claus Offe (Political Scientist, Hertie School of Governance Berlin).For further information:
http://www.wiso.uni-dortmund.de/lsfg/as/de/content/aktuell/aktuell.html and S.Liebermann@freiheitstattvollbeschaeftigung.de

*KARLSRUHE (DE), 23-24 February 2006: Symposium on basic incomeA two days symposium on basic income (in German) will be held at the University of Karlsruhe on Feb. 23-24, 2006. For further infomation:
André Presse See also:

*PHILADELPHIA (US), 24-26 February 2006: The Fifth Congress of USBIGThe Fifth Congress of the U.S. Basic Income Guarantee Network will be held in conjunction with the Eastern Economic Association (EEA) Annual Conference in Philadelphia from Friday February 24 to Sunday February 26, 2006. The general theme shall be: "Resources and Rights". The programme includes twelve sessions and more than forty speakers. A tentative schedule has been posted on USBIG's webiste http://www.usbig.net/.

*HEIDELBERG (DE), 18 March 2006: Panel Discussion on "Unconditional Basic Income" A public panel discussion on basic income will be organised by the Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung, Baden Württemberg, on march 18, at 5 pm. Sascha Liebermann (Sociologist, Univ. of Dortmund) will be one of the speakers.


*GERMANY: PRESIDENT KOHLER SAYS BASIC INCOME IS WORTH CONSIDERINGIn an interview with the weekly "Stern" (28 December 2005), German President Horst Kohler suggested that the idea of a basic income should be considered as a key strategy to prevent social exclusion of the long-term unemployed. He refered to discussions about a negative income tax in the USA.For further information: http://www.stern.de

*GERMANY: FREEDOM, NOT FULL EMPLOYMENTIn recent weeks the group "Freedom, not Full Employment" has been actively trying to give more visibility to the idea of basic income. It advertised the idea of an unconditional basic income in subway stations in Cologne (Dec. 6-12, 2005) and Hamburg (Dec. 9-18, 2005)
(see www.freiheitstattvollbeschaeftigung.de/plakataktion.htm.) One of its more active members, sociologist Sascha Liebermann, has been discussing "Work and Income" in a radio show on Bayern 2 Radio (Bavaria), January 5, 2006, 10-11 AM (http://www.br-online.de/programme/bayern2/). Liebermann also wrote a reply to a paper by Ulrich Busch ("The Land of Milk and Honey - a Leftist Utopia? Critique of the Idea of an Unconditional Basic Income", which was published in "utopie kreativ", no. 181, November 2005. This reply is entitled "Freedom is a Challenge, not the Land of Milk and Honey", and will be published in "utopie kreativ", no. 184, February 2006.Several German newspapers have echoed the activities of the group "Freedom, not Full Employment". See for instance an interview in "Thüringer Allgemeine " under the titel: "Freiheit zur Muße" (Freedom for Leisure), with Sascha Liebermann, published on January 13, 2006; or an interview in "Tageszeitung" (Taz - regional edition of North Rhine Westfalia) with Sascha Liebermann and Ute Fischer, published on January 28, 2006.The main Theses defended by the group are now translated into French on its website: www.freiheitstattvollbeschaeftigung.de

*NAMIBIA: PRESIDENT MEETS BASIC INCOME COALITIONAccording to the January 27, 2006 issue of the daily newspaper "The Namibian" (Windhoek), Namibian President Hifikepunye Pohamba met representatives of the Basic Income Grant Coalition (BIG) at State House. The Coalition, made up of a host of different organisations, is lobbying for the introduction of an unconditional N$100 minimum grant to every Namibian not yet eligible for a Government pension. The President met the head of the delegation, Bishop Zephania Kameeta, BIG coordinator Reverend Philip Strydom, Legal Assistance Centre (LAC) Director Norman Tjombe and academic researcher Reverend Dirk Haarman, in a closed-door session to discuss the implementation of the proposed grant. At the end of the day, Pohamba had "not committed himself to anything", Kameeta said after emerging from the hour-long meeting, although the President did promise to take the matter up with Cabinet. "That's all we can ask," Kameeta said. "We cannot give the President of Namibia a time frame, but for us this was enough. The most positive thing is that he said we must stay in consultation, stay in communication. We had a very open and frank discussion. He asked very frank questions, so the meeting went beyond our expectations." The idea for a Namibian basic income started in 2002, Kameeta told the President before the closed-door session began, when Government's Namibian Tax Consortium (Namtax) stated that it found the best method of addressing poverty and inequality to be a universal income grant. The grant would retrieve the money from those not in need, Kameeta said, through progressive tax adjustments. In this same way, the grant would overcome the threat of people becoming dependent on it. Last year, BIG Coalition representatives met the then Speaker of the National Assembly, Theo-Ben Gurirab, and the Parliamentary Committee on Human Resources, Social and Community Development. According to Reverend Haarman, both entities were supportive of the idea.

*NEW ZEALAND: UNIVERSAL INCOME TRUST ACTIVELY PROMOTES BASIC INCOMEIn 2005 the Universal Income Trust (UIT) has promoted and made available its educational brochures and other resources extensively throughout New Zealand, in both urban and rural areas. This has been done via telephone, email, physical post and in person. As a result, the Trust's support networks have been greatly strengthened and extended. It has received help from an increasing number of organisations and individuals who have wished to display and/or distribute Universal Income resources. The types of organisations have included the tertiary education sector especially student associations, citizen advice centres, information centres, recycling centres, community houses, pre-school centres, cafes, and 170 or so public libraries which constitutes almost the entire public library network in Aotearoa. The Asian translations have been appreciated in many areas. The Trust now has two static vertical displays: Universal Income for a Sustainable Future and Universal Income Systems: A Global Vignette. One or both have been mounted in various public libraries.

*SPAIN: DISCUSSION ABOUT A BASIC INCOME FOR FARMERSIn the context of the reform of the European Common Agrarian Policy, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture held a meeting with the Deputy Director of the General Secretariat for Underprivileged Zones and a small group of Basic Income supporters at the end of December 2005. The main topic of discussion was the differences between a universal unconditional Basic Income and a guaranteed income focused on farmers. Although the representatives of the Ministry did not make a substantial commitment, they showed disposal to give support to a symposium on Basic Income. The aim of the participants at the meeting was to convince the Ministry of Agriculture to raise the cause of Basic Income at the debates on the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union.
For further information:


*ENGLISHDAHMS, Harry F. (2005), “Globalization as Hyper-Alienation: Critiques of Traditional Marxism as Arguments for Basic Income,” Social Theory as Politics in Knowledge (Current Perspectives in Social Theory, vol. 23) (London: Elsevier, 2005), pp. 205-76.Basic income-related schemes both try to retain and overcome certain aspects of the social welfare state. Combined with Keynesian social and economic policies, the social welfare state helped to secure social and political stability, and facilitated unprecedented economic expansion and development. Yet in retrospect, the social policy paradigm that emerged during the Cold War does not appear to have been directed at eradicating, nor at alleviating once and for all, those inequalities. Rather, it sustained a network of enduring social and economic inequalities. Both van Parijs and van der Veen's argument about basic income that began with "a capitalist road to communism" (1986), and Moishe Postone's “reinterpretation of Marx's critical theory” (1993), are critiques of “traditional Marxism” that complement and support each other in important ways, as they strengthen arguments for basic income by emphasizing how the thrust of critical Marxism is directed at illuminating how the dominant social policy paradigm is a mechanism that maintains forms of social, political, cultural and economic life in a state of stasis that is increasingly immune to qualitative transformations.

HILL, Ronald Paul (2005), "Do the Poor Deserve Less Than Surfers? An Essay for the Special Issue on Vulnerable Consumers.", Journal of Macromarketing, Dec2005, 25 (2), p215-218.In his seminal work on an unconditional basic income for each citizen, Philippe Van Parijs provides a new paradigm to facilitate a discussion on the morality (or lack there of) inherent within our global distribution system of goods and services. He also (implicitly) challenges the field to consider the impact of greater exchange parity upon our material world and the quality of life afforded our most vulnerable consumers. After briefly presenting his approach, the work of John Rawls on distributive justice and this author's own research on consumption adequacy is integrated into this perspective to form a powerful model for policy makers. Ronald Paul Hill is Bank of America Professor of Corporate Social Responsibility and founding dean, College of Business, University of South Florida St. Petersburg.

HUMPHREYS, John (2005), "Reform 30/30: Rebuilding Australia's Tax and Welfare System", CIS Policy Monograph 70, 27pp.Much has been said about the need for tax and welfare reform in Australia. In this paper the author argues that the tyranny of the status quo and self-imposed limitations such as ‘budget neutrality’ and ‘no-person-worse-off ’ has doomed any radical reform proposal to failure. He advocates what he calls a “tax revolution” for Australia: “Reform 30/30”. Under Reform 30/30, all income taxes (company, Capital Gains Tax [CGT], Pay As You Go [PAYG], Fringe Benefits Tax [FBT]) would be equal at 30%, and the "Medicare levy" removed. The tax free threshold (TFT) would be increased to A$30,000 per person and all tax expenditures (tax deductions, offsets, and so on) would be removed. The current welfare system would be replaced by a sliding scale of payments (a Negative Income Tax or NIT) that phased out at 30% and finished at an income of A$30,000. The NIT would allow the removal of the minimum wage which would lead to the creation of 500,000 new jobs. The incentives for low-income earners will be improved as their effective marginal tax rate (EMTR) is reduced from over 60% to 30%­so that people have an incentive to take the new jobs. According to the author of this study, these two policies represent the best solution to unemployment and Reform 30/30 is unambiguously beneficial to the economy­with estimated benefits of A$90 billion as well as higher ongoing economic growth. Reform 30/30 is unambiguously simpler than the current system­with no tax return, no tax avoidance opportunities and much lower administrative costs. Issues of equity will always be contentious, but Reform 30/30 is more equitable than the status quo for several reasons. First, it massively reduces unemployment and poverty. Second, it ends the discrimination against couples. Third, it ends the discrimination against risky business and inconsistent income. Finally, this reform will actually pay for itself. Rough estimates suggest a medium-term impact on the budget of +A$15 billion per year, and more in the long run. Reform 30/30 offers 500,000 new jobs, less poverty, a A$90 billion bigger economy, higher growth rates, lower tax levels and a simpler, fairer tax/welfare system and more money in the budget. The price is that some sacred cows of politics (‘progressive’ tax, minimum wage, no- person- worse-off ) will have to be sacrificed. It’s worth it, the author concludes. The paper can be downloaded at http://www.cis.org.au/Publications/policymonographs/pm70.pdf

PAXTON Will, WHITE Stuart, and MAXWELL Dominic (eds.) (2006). The citizen's stake. Exploring the future of universal asset policies. Bristol, The Policy Press, 224 pages, Paperback ISBN 1861346999, Hardback ISBN 1861347006.Can and should asset-based policies such as universal capital grants become a new pillar of the welfare state? Can they form the basis for a more egalitarian form of market economy? The citizen's stake throws open the debate by bringing together the ideas of leading thinkers in academia and policy to explore the future scope of asset-based policies in Britain. The book examines asset-based welfare in connection with a wide range of issues, from tax policy to childcare, and includes the results of two innovative studies of public opinion on capital grants and inheritance tax. It is the first time that public opinion work has been integrated with theory into a serious and cohesive consideration of practical options for the future of asset-based welfare.The citizen's stake is accessibly written and aimed at a broad audience of academics, students and policy-makers. Indeed, anyone interested in how this new policy field can and should develop will want to read this book. The discussions are relevant to academics, researchers and policy makers overseas, particularly in the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Ireland and Sweden, where there is a high level of interest in this topic.Will Paxton edited this volume whilst a Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Public Policy Research. In the past, he has published on savings policy, volunteering and democratic participation, financial exclusion and poverty. Stuart White is Fellow in Politics at Jesus College, Oxford University. He researches in political theory and public policy and is the author of The Civic Minimum: On the Rights and Obligations of Economic Citizenship (2003) and co-editor of The Ethics of Stakeholding (2003, with Keith Dowding and Jurgen De Wispelaere). Dominic Maxwell is a Research Fellow at the Institute for Public Policy Research. Before joining IPPR he was a Research Assistant for a Labour MP, and has previous experience at HM Treasury and Progress.Publisher's website: https://www.policypress.org.uk/Third editor's address: "Dominic Maxwell"

*FRENCHPERREAULT Jean-François (2005), Basic Income and labour market related issues (« Analyse des enjeux d’une Allocation Universelle sur le marché du travail »), Master Thesis, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR), Département Sciences de la gestion, Supervisor: Benoît-Mario Papillon (benoit-mario.papillon@uqtr.ca), 2005.In the literature, labour market considerations in the analysis of Basic Income (BI) policies have generally focused on labour force participation. In the first part of the thesis, after a short historical review of the origin of the idea of a BI policy, the author briefly discusses some justifications for this type of policy. In order to take a broader perspective over the issues, BI policies are compared with other policies having similar objectives: welfare payments and a negative income tax. The second part of the thesis looks into the effects of a BI policy on labour markets. In doing so, the author synthesizes what has been found on labour force participation effects in light of various BI policy experiences in North America over the recent decades, and then goes beyond labour force participation effect and hypothesises a number of other effects pertaining to various dimensions of labour markets. As argued by most critics of BI policies, researches have confirmed that the effect on labour force participation is negative but much less than expected. Furthermore, a broader view at dimensions of labour markets suggests that BI policies could contribute in various ways to the improvement of labour market performance in terms of wage level and job satisfaction; BI policies give the means to low income class people to stay longer at school; it is also sensible to conjecture other positive effects in terms of job search and contract negotiation. In addition, impacts are also predictable at other levels, labour market flexibility and non-profitable activities to name a few. For further information: Jean-François Perreault

*ITALIANVAN PARIJS Philippe (2005). "Reditto di base e diritti umani",in Il Mercato giusto e l'etica sociale della società civile (Stefano Semplici ed.), Milano: Vita e Pensiero, 2005, 205-210. Translated as "Renta básica y derechos humanos" in Sin Permiso. Republica y socialismo, tambien para el siglo XXI, Barcelona, 18/12/2005.An interview with Philippe Van Parijs (chair of BIEN's International Board) conducted by Italian philosopher Benedetta Giovanola (University of Macerata) on the relationship between basic income, justice and human rights, and on the prospects for basic income in Europe and beyond.

*SPANISH PEREZ MUNOZ, Cristian (2005). “Ingreso Básico Universal y libertad real. Algunos apuntes críticos”, Revista de Estudios Políticos, núm. 129, Madrid, julio-septiembre 2005, pp. 163-192.This article by Uruguayan philosopher and BI supporter Christian Pérez Muñoz offers a critical revision of the notion of “real freedom for all” and its institutional implications. Pérez Muñoz argues that Van Parijs’ egalitarian scheme partially fails since it does not consider individuals’ capacities to convert their resources into true freedom. Following Elisabeth Anderson line of argument, the author stresses that the achievement of individual freedom is closely linked to individuals’ responsibility when actions, preferences and choices are to be faced. This is why he suggests, as Richard Arneson does, that the main problem into the “real freedom” scheme is the lack of an in-depth analyse of the – both social and psychological - constraints that influence over the way individuals make their choices and form their preferences. In effect, people normally lack the necessary information to responsibly decide. Although it is true that the use of the metrics of preferences and welfare leads to conceptual problems that the “real freedom” perspective sorts out, we must go beyond a mere initial equalization of opportunities and build a theory of justice taking into account, as Amartya Sen has suggested, the real capacities of individuals to use the resources at their disposal. As the author stresses, “it is desirable that individuals make whatever they want to make with themselves; but only in the case they possess the necessary information to evaluate the consequences of their choices”. This is why “the construction of institutions in a ‘free society’ cannot rest on the assumption that individuals enjoy a status of full self-ownership”. A solid idea of freedom is not possible if individuals lack a relevant degree of autonomy to decide on their own life plans from genuinely formed preferences. This argument leads the author to the conclusion that the institutional scheme suggested by Philippe Van Parijs is incomplete because it disregards agents’ capacity to choose. This is, then, an objection to the idea of “real freedom” rather than to Basic Income: in fact, Basic Income can be seen as an excellent instrument to compensate those inequalities that erode individuals’ capacity to decide. Something like educational institutions is also required not to inculcate values – the author is always committed to a liberal perspective -, but to provide people with the necessary information to evaluate preferences and beliefs and to anticipate the consequences of their actions. Such a set of measures is a necessary condition for the achievement of effective “real freedom”.


*ALASKA's DIGITAL ARCHIVESAlaska's Digital Archives (http://vilda.alaska.edu/) presents a wealth of historical photographs, albums, oral histories, moving images, maps, documents, physical objects, and other materials from libraries, museums and archives. It includes a 72 second film clip, color with audio track of Jay Hammond talking about the budget gap and bridging the gap with taxes vs. Permanent Fund Dividend: see http://vilda.alaska.edu/cdmg11/image/4502.mov

*GBI FOUNDATIONA Dutch website has been integrated into the website of the Global Basic Income Foundation: http://www.globalincome.org/ > Nederlands. These new pages should make the GBI website more accessible to a broader audience in Belgium and the Netherlands. The website is not just a translation of the pages in English, since some texts have been re-written. Furthermore, a new page has been added to the English as well as to the Dutch site: an online questionnaire which makes it easier for people to give their opinion about a Global Basic Income.

*FIAN INTERNATIONALKUNNEMAN, Rolf (2005), “Basic Food Income – Option or Obligation?”, FIAN International, Defending the right to food worldwide. January 15, 2005, 31 pages.About a quarter of those people facing food insecurity are so undernourished that they are unable to work. Others are unable to engage in agricultural work or wage labour due to infirmity or responsibilities such as family care (e.g. HIV-positive people and orphans). Even access to resources and minimum wages cannot help either of these two groups. A universal basic income paid to every citizen without means-testing and irrespective of age and employment status, which is recouped through taxation from better earners, is an effective way of remedying the abject poverty and destitution faced by the lowest quartile of the poor. Pilot programmes in different countries have shown that such cash transfer programmes can raise the standard of living of this group by providing the means for procuring food. FIAN supports civil society efforts towards the creation of basic income programmes in different countries of the world. The full text of this article can be downloaded from: http://www.fian.org/fian/index.php?option=com_doclight&Itemid=100&task=showdocument&dl_docID=43.Author’s email address: kuennemann@fian.org.


Eduardo SUPLICY, Federal Senator, Sao Paulo, BrazilGuy STANDING,
Director of the Social and Economic Security Programme,
ILO, Geneva, SwitzerlandFurther details about BIEN's Executive Committee and International Board can be found on our website, as well as further details about the Recognised National Networks.


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sábado, febrero 11, 2006

Necesitamos el derecho a un ingreso

Necesitamos el derecho a un Ingreso

Articulo publicado en el diario Berliner Zeitung el jueves 29 de diciembre de 2005.

Götz W. Werner, Jefe de la cadena de Droguerías DM, sobre la seguridad social básica, es necesario un nuevo modelo impositivo hacia el consumo.

Sr. Werner, el desempleo es siempre motivo de preocupación. Como empresario es usted una persona que genera empleo. ¿Nos podría decir de donde se podrían crear más puestos de trabajo?

Esta pregunta, estudiada con detenimiento, entraña una esperanza absurda.

¿Por que?

Porque es una buena cosa si las personas no tienen que trabajar. Esos gritos de “Trabajo, Trabajo, Trabajo” como si la economía fuera una institución de terapia laboral.

No, la economía debe de consistir en producir las cosas que las personas quieren o necesitan para vivir. Para ello es cada vez menos necesario el trabajo, y esto nos ofrece la posibilidad de liberarnos de la obligación de trabajar. Por primera vez en la historia del hombre, por lo menos en los países ricos, estamos en condiciones de producir alimentos sin tener que trabajar para ello todo el tiempo. Esto es maravilloso.

Eso lo ven ocho millones de desempleados de otra forma.

Por supuesto pero ¿porque?

Porque no tienen ningún trabajo

No, porque no tienen ningún ingreso. Trabajo e ingresos están en nuestro sistema económico asociados el uno al otro. Este es el verdadero problema. Vivimos en una sociedad donde todavía esta vigente el antiguo dicho “Quien no trabaja, tampoco come”. Con esto llegamos al tiempo posterior a los griegos, para ellos, el fin no era el trabajo, este lo realizaban los esclavos. Nuestros esclavos hoy en día son las maquinas, estas nos quitan el trabajo. Actualmente esto no nos conduce hacia una mayor libertad, sino que conduce a millones de personas a una mayor precariedad, que intentamos paliar con un gigantesco sistema social. La crisis de la seguridad social nos indica que este sistema cada día funciona peor.

¿Como se pueden desasociar los ingresos del trabajo?

La función de la economía es proveer de bienes y servicios a la sociedad. Esto funciona hoy en día como nunca. Hoy necesitamos tan solo más Ingresos. Aquí es donde la cosa tropieza enormemente. Por eso necesitamos una Renta Básica Universal, que la reciba cada persona independientemente de un puesto de trabajo. No necesitamos un derecho al trabajo necesitamos un derecho a unos Ingresos.

¿A cuanto ascendería esa Renta Básica?

Esta tendría que ser discutida. Pero debe de posibilitar vivir sobre un mínimo de existencia cultural, es decir no solamente el puro subsistir. 1000 o 1500 Euros al mes podrían ser como regla orientativa.

¿1500 Euros, así de simple- quien iría entonces a trabajar?

En primer lugar con esa cantidad no se puede vivir alegremente. La mayoría deseara ganar algo a mayores. La motivación financiera por el trabajo se seguiría dando. No obstante se tendría la libertad de rechazar unos ingresos y con ello un puesto de trabajo, y en lugar de ello realizar cosas más interesantes, en la atención a las personas mayores, en el cuidado de la saludo, en el cuidado del medioambiente, en la educación, y así sucesivamente, es decir allí donde hoy sencillamente el trabajo resulta caro. Hoy se les obliga a millones de personas a renunciar a estos trabajos a pesar de que no son necesarios para la producción. Esto es absurdo. Y en segundo lugar esa libertad de no estar obligados a trabajar les da a las personas la oportunidad de pensar, que pueden aportar al desarrollo de la comunidad.

¿En su sociedad no produzco para mí sino para los demás?

Esto sucede ya hoy en día, es cierto que todo el mundo piensa trabajo para mí, pero esto no es cierto, cada persona vive de los bienes que producen los demás, y no de sus ingresos. El dinero no se puede comer. El que vivió en la antigua DDR sabe que había dinero suficiente, pero las estanterías se encontraban vacías. Hoy en día la situación es la inversa. Esto hay que cambiarlo, la fuerza laboral esta aquí, los medios de producción están aquí, los bienes están aquí, solo es necesario acoplarlos de otra forma.

A pesar de ello, trabajar sin obligación ¿No representa una imagen utópica del hombre?

De ninguna manera, hoy las personas sienten el trabajo como una carga, porque son obligadas a ello. Hoy separan los ingresos al hombre, casi de su trabajo. Hace que esté sea una obligación. Esto no significa que el trabajo en un principio sea algo indeseado. Las personas quieren estar ocupadas en compañía. Cuantas personas no trabajan hoy en día de forma onerosa, a pesar de que por motivos financieros no tendrían necesidad de trabajar.
En el trabajo se crea contacto social, sentimiento de comunidad, la satisfacción de ser necesitado, el desarrollo personal. La gente presupone siempre que el hombre es un vago y mentiroso ser sin sentido. Cada persona piensa que el otro necesita obligación y control. Solamente él no. Esto es una contradicción.

¿Que sucedería con la mayoría de trabajos que no quiere nadie?

Existen cuatro posibilidades: cada uno se hace su propio trabajo, como ejemplo IKEA, donde cada uno se monta sus muebles. O se paga mejor el trabajo, o se automatiza o se importa, es decir se contratan trabajadores extranjeros.

Bueno la pregunta central: ¿Quién debe de financiar esto?

En primer lugar el estado da hoy en día, miles de millones en prestaciones sociales y otras transferencias que serian innecesarias con la Renta Básica, dinero del desempleo y ayudas, dinero para los niños, pensiones, ayuda social, dinero para alquileres, Bafög, etc.. Además ahorraríamos una ingente cantidad de dinero de la burocracia social. En segundo lugar necesitamos un cambio completo hacia los impuestos al consumo de nuestro sistema fiscal.

¿Que significa esto?

No se gravaran más los ingresos y con ello no se frenará el esfuerzo y encarecerá el trabajo. Las iniciativas empresariales, no se verán gravadas y con ello castigadas, si no que tan solo existirá un solo tipo de impuesto, el impuesto al consumo que será muy alto, estará a la altura de la cuota estatal, alrededor del 40 o 50%.

¿Usted cree, que el impuesto al consumo alcanzará para todos los gastos estatales?

Puesto que los ingresos fiscales permanecen iguales, tan solo se recaudaran en otro lugar, en la compra.

¿Como pueden los consumidores financiar todo el estado?

Esto lo hacen ya desde hace tiempo. Ya hoy paga el usuario final al final todos los impuestos. Esto no se lo imagina nadie. Por ejemplo los impuestos de sociedades: los pagan las empresas, pero estas lo cargan en los precios. Todos los impuestos están incluidos en los precios, pero esto es muy poco transparente. Los impuestos al consumo traen consigo toda la transparencia y es más justo. Quien más consume, el que más producto consume de lo aportado por la sociedad, aporta en mayor medida a la financiación de la comunidad. Quién renuncia, ahorra. Hoy en día sucede al revés. Quien más consume ahorra, todo el mundo sabe que si compras una docena es más barato.

Al fin de esta progresión impositiva, le afectaría con más fuerza a las rentas bajas.

Para ello estaría la Renta Básica. Esta realiza la función del mínimo personal, una suma de dinero que no se tiene que compartir con el estado. Un cambio hacia los impuestos al consumo terminaría con el trabajo en negro, se convertirían innecesarias modelos de ahorro de impuestos e inversiones por motivos fiscales. Esto crearía riqueza.
La iniciativa de las personas se desataría, puesto que el conseguir valor no estaría lastrado por el mantenimiento de la infraestructura social. La gente no tendría que ahorrar con miedo, sino consumir, puesto que la renta básica les elimina el miedo al futuro. Los sueldos serian más bajos ya que todas las personas tendrían el dinero de subsistencia. No tendría sentido trasladar la producción al extranjero, al contrario esta vendrían a nosotros. Además se mejorarían las exportaciones, puesto que los productos no serian gravados con todos los posibles impuestos.

¿Cuanto tiempo necesita este sistema para ponerse en práctica?

Lo que tenemos delante es un bloqueo mental. Hoy en día pueden mis pensamientos parecer utópicos. Pero si podemos pensar en el nuevo sistema, entonces podemos mañana comenzar a aplicarlo.

viernes, febrero 10, 2006

El parlamento Vasco Estudiará la creación de una Renta Básica

EUSKADI.-Parlamento Vasco estudiará la creación de una renta básica para todos los ciudadanos, independientemente de sus recursos

VITORIA, 2 (EUROPA PRESS).- El Parlamento Vasco acordó hoy la constitución de una ponencia con el objetivo de analizar la posibilidad de implantar en Euskadi la renta básica ciudadana, una cobertura que a diferencia de la renta básica actual, reservada para las personas sin otros recursos, recibirían todos los ciudadanos, independientemente de su situación económica, familiar o laboral.

Europa Press02/02/2006 (12:42h.)
La decisión fue adoptada hoy en la Comisión de Trabajo y Acción Social del Parlamento Vasco a través de una enmienda de transacción que recibió el apoyo de todos los grupos a excepción de EHAK, que se abstuvo.

La enmienda sustituyó a una iniciativa anterior del PSE de contenido similar a la propuesta finalmente aceptada. Según explicó a los periodistas en los pasillos de la Cámara el parlamentario socialista Jesús Loza, la decisión responde al objetivo de "abrir el debate parlamentario" en torno a una cuestión que en la actualidad ya está siendo sometida al debate teórico aunque aún no se ha puesto en práctica en ningún país del mundo.

"Sería una revolución", reconoció el propio Loza tras explicar que esta renta se concedería a todos los ciudadanos "independientemente de si trabaja o no o de la forma de convivencia que tenga". El modelo de renta básica actual está limitado a las personas sin trabajo ni ingresos. El dirigente socialista indicó que se trataría de una prestación "similar a la sanidad, a la que tiene derecho todo el mundo, gane más o menos".

Desde el PNV, Genma González de Txabarri consideró "muy adecuado" emprender un debate político en torno a esta cuestión para, una vez cerrado, se determine "qué tipo de modelo" de renta es más adecuado para combatir la exclusión.

Karmele Antxustegi (EA) estimó que la ponencia servirá para "definir el Estado de Bienestar" y aseguró que éste es un debate "muy profundo y necesario".

Oskar Matute (EB) subrayó que la enmienda es "adecuada" para "dar una solución a las incógnitas que todavía existen en torno a la renta básica" y para hacer "más efectiva" la lucha contra la exclusión.

Fernando Maura (PP) se mostró a favor de la constitución de la ponencia, aunque adelantó que la posición de su grupo "no es favorable a priori" al establecimiento de este tipo de prestación.
Nekane Erauzkin (EHAK) explicó que su abstención se debe a que la enmienda supone "un paso atrás" respecto al primer texto de los socialistas